Scientific Literature

Grunion Literature Review

Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Theses, Dissertations

Last updated August 2017

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Allen, L., M. Horn, and D. Pondella (Eds.), 2006. "Ecology of California Marine Fishes". University of California Press.

Allen, L.G., A. M. Findlay, and C. M. Phalen. 2002. Structure and standing stock of the fish assemblages of San Diego Bay, California from 1994 to 1999. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 101: 49-85.

Allen, L. G., M. H. Horn, F. A. Edmands II, and C. A. Usui. 1983. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the fish assemblage in the Cabrillo Beach area of Los Angeles Harbor, California. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 82: 47-70.

Ambrose, M., N. S. Walker, J. Hawk. 1981. "Captain Mike�s Complete Guide to Grunion Hunting".  Oak Tree Press, La Jolla, CA.

American Trader Trustee Council, 2001. Final restoration plan and environmental assessment for seabirds injured by the American Trader oil spill.  Report of the American Trader Natural Resource Trustee Council, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Fish and Game, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Aryafar, H. 2013. Effects of delayed hatching on larval length, energy reserves, swimming activity, and survival in the California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis. MS Thesis, California State University, Fullerton. 53 pp.

Avila, E. M. and J. V. Juario. 1987. Yolk and oil globule utilization and developmental morphology of the digestive tract epithelium in larval rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch). Aquaculture 65: 319-331.

Ayres, W. O. 1860. [Descriptions of fishes.] Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 1) 73-77.

Barnhart, P. S. 1918. The spawning of the little-smelt Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres). Calif. Fish & Game 4: 181-182.

Barton, M. 2007. "Bond�s Biology of Fishes", 3rd Edition. Thomson-Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA.

Benz, G. W., R. L. Otting, and A. Case. 1995. Resdescription of Argulus melanostictus (Branchiura: Argulidae), a parasite of California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis: Atherinidae), with notes regarding chemical control of A. melanostictus in a captive host population. Journal of Parasitology 81: 754-761.

Bernardi, G., L. Findley, and A. Rocha-Olivares. 2003. Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations.  Evolution 57: 1599-1609.

Borthwick, P. W., J. M. Patrick, Jr., and D. P. Middaugh. 1985. Comparative acute sensitivities of early life stages of Atherinid fishes to chlorpyrifos and thiobencarb. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14: 465-473.

Botton, M. L., M. Pogorzelska, L. Smoral, and A. Shehata. 2006. Thermal biology of horseshoe crab embryos and larvae: A role for heat shock proteins. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 336: 65-73. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2006.04.014

Brandon, J. L. and F. J. Rokop. 1985. "Life Between the Tides: The Natural History of the Common Seashore Live of Southern California". American Southwest Publishing Co., San Diego, CA.

Breder, C. M. and D. E. Rosen. 1966. "Modes of Reproduction in Fishes". Natural History Press, Garden City, NY.

Broadbent, S. L. 1998. Embryo survival of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenius (Osteichthyes: Atherinidae): Individual and seasonal variation in egg pod viability. Master�s Thesis, California State Univ., Long Beach. 50 pp.

Bronowski, J. 2011. The ascent of man. Random House.

Broughton, J. M., V. I. Cannon, and S. Arnold. 2006. The taphonomy of owl-deposited fish remains and the origin of the Homestead Cave ichthyofauna. Journal of Taphonomy 4: 69-95.

Brown, E. E., H. Baumann, D. O. Conover. 2012. Absence of countergradient and cogradient variation in an oceanic silverside, the California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 461: 175-186.

Brothers, E. B., C. P. Mathews, R. Lasker. 1976. Daily growth increments in otoliths from larval and adult fishes. Fishery Bulletin 74: 1-8.

Bullock, T. 2005. In praise of �natural history.� Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 25: 217-221.

Bullock, T. H., M. H. Hofmann, F. K. Nahm, J. G. New and J. C. Prechtl. 1990. Event-related potentials in the retina and optic tectum of fish. J. Neurophysiology 64: 903-914.

Bunn, N. A., C. J. Fox, and T. Webb. 2000. A literature review of studies on fish egg mortality: implications for the estimation of spawning stock biomass by the annual egg production method. Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Science Series Technical Report 111, CEFAS, Lowestoft, 37 pp.

Byrne, R. and J. Avise, 2009. Multiple paternity and extra-group fertilizations in a natural population of California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis), a beach-spawning marine fish. Marine Biology 156: 1681-1690.

Byrne, R., G. Bernardi, and J. Avise. 2013. Spatiotemporal Genetic Structure in a Protected Marine Fish, the California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis), and Relatedness in the Genus Leuresthes. Journal of Heredity 104 (4): 521-531. doi: 10.1093/jhered/est024


Canning, E. U. and A. C. Olson, Jr. 1980. Nosema lepocreadii sp. n., a parasite of Lepocreadium manteri (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae) from the gut of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. J. Parasitology 66: 154-159.

Canning, E. U. and A. C. Olson, Jr. 1983. The ultrastructure of Nosema lepocreadii Canning and Olson, 1979 (Microspora, Nosematidae) and its relevance to the generic diagnosis of Nosema Nageli, 1857. J. Parasitology 69: 143-151.

Cannon, R. 1953. "How to Fish the Pacific Coast". Lane Publishing, Menlo Park, CA.

Carrilllo, A. 2013. Effects of extended embryonic incubation on skeletal development, feeding rates, and growth of larval California Grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. MS Thesis, California State University, Fullerton. 62 pp.

Castro, T., and M. Yoshida. 1974. Los grunones curiosas criaturas del mar. Ciencias Marinas, 1(2):92-95.

Chapman, Todd.  2000. Ultrastructural analysis of early post-hatch otolith development in larval California grunion", Leuresthes tenuis". MS Thesis, California State University, Long Beach. 33 pp.

Clark, F. N. 1925. The life history of Leuresthes tenuis, an atherine fish with tide controlled spawning habits. Calif. Fish & Game 10: 1-51 plus plate.

Clark, F. N. 1926. Conservation of the grunion. Calif. Fish & Game 12(4): 163-166.

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Clark, F. N. 1928a. Grunion at La Jolla. Calif. Fish & Game 14(1): 89-90.

Clark, F. N. 1928b. Grunion on Cabrillo Beach. Calif. Fish & Game 14(4): 273-274.

Clark, F. N. 1938. Grunion in southern California. Calif. Fish & Game 24(1): 49-54.

Clark, J. R., J. M. Patrick, Jr., D. P. Middaugh, and J. C. Moore. 1985. Relative sensitivity of six estuarine fishes to carbophenothion, chlorpyrifos, and fenvalerate. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10: 382-390.

Crabtree, C. B. 1983. Assessment of genetic differentiation within the atherinid genus Leuresthes.  Isozyme Bull. 16: 77.

Crabtree, C. B. 1987. Allozyme evidence for the phylogenetic relationships within the silverside subfamily Atherinopsinae. Copeia 1987: 860-867.

Crane, J.M. 1969. The response of male grunion to a wiggling stick. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 68(3): 191-193.

Conover, D. O. and B. E. Kynard. 1983. Field and laboratory observations of spawning periodicity and behavior of a northern population of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia.  Env. Biology of Fishes 11: 161-171.

Constant, C. L., 1976. The effects of hypersalinity upon the eggs and prolarvae of the Gulf of California grunion, Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins and Evermann, 1888). Univ. Ariz. M.S. thesis, 53 pp.

Darken, R. S., K. L. M. Martin, and M. C. Fisher. 1998. Metabolism during delayed hatching in terrestrial eggs of a marine fish, the grunion Leuresthes tenius. Physiological Zoology 71(4): 400-406.

Daugherty, A. E. 1962. California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis.  Pp. 29-30 in "California Ocean Fisheries Resources to the Year 1960". Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA.

David, L.R. 1939. Embryonic and early larval stages of the grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, and the sculpin, Scorpaena guttata. Copeia 1939(2): 75-81.

DeMartini, E. E. 1999. Intertidal spawning. In M. H. Horn, K. L. M. Martin, and M. A. Chotkowski (eds.), "Intertidal fishes:  Life in two worlds", pp. 143-164. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 

DeMartini, E. E. and R. K. Fountain. 1981. Ovarian cycling frequency and batch fecundity in the queenfish, Seriphus politus: attributes representative of serially spawning fishes. Fish Bulletin 79: 549-560.

Dugan, J. E., D. M. Hubbard, M. D. McCrary, and M. O. Pierson. 2003. The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 58: 25-40.

Dyer, B. S. and B. Chernoff. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships among atheriniform fishes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha). Zoological Journal Linnean Society 117: 1-69.


Ehlinger, G. S. and R. A. Tankersley. 2003. Larval hatching in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus: facilitation by environmental cues. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 292: 199-212.

Ehrlich, K. F. 1977. Inhibited hatching success of marine fish eggs by power plant effluent.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 8: 228-229.

Ehrlich, K. F. and D. A. Farris. 1970. Effect of temperature on the number of myomeres in newly hatched grunion (Leuresthes tenuis). Copeia 1970(4): 774-775. 

Ehrlich, K. F. and D. A. Farris. 1971. Some influences of the temperature on the development of the grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Ayers). Calif. Fish & Game.  57(1): 56-68.

Ehrlich, K. F. and D. A. Farris. 1972. Some influences of temperature on the development of the grunion Leuresthes tenuis, an atherine fish. Marine Biology 12: 267-271.

Ehrlich, K.F. and Muszynski, G. 1981. The relationship between temperature-specific yolk utilization and temperature selection of larval grunion. Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 312-313.

Ehrlich, K. F. and G. Muszynski. 1982. Effects of temperature on interactions of physiological and behavioral capacities of larval California grunion: adaptations to the planktonic environment. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 60: 223-224.

Eldon, G. A. 1970. Suspected terrestrial deposition of eggs by Neochanna apoda Gunther (Pisces: Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). J. Fish Biology 3: 247-249.

Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald, and H. Hammann. 1983. "A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes of North America". Peterson Field Guide Series, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 

Fitch, J. E. and R. J. Lavenberg. 1971. "California Marine Food and Game Fishes".  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Fitch, J. E. and R. J. Lavenberg. 1975. "Tidepool and Nearshore Fishes of California".  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Flick, R. E., and L. C. Ewing. 2009. Sand volume needs of southern California beaches as a function of future sea-level rise rates. Shore & Beach 77: 36.

Foreman, K., D. Hubbard, K. K. Johnston, and K. Martin. 2015. State of the Bay Report. “Habitat Conditions: Sandy Shores.” Urban Coast 5(1): 69-84. ISSN 2151-612X.

Fritzsche, R.A., R.H. Chamberlin, and R.A. Fisher. 1985. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) � California grunion. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 82(11.28). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4, 12 pp.

Gaida, I. H., D. G. Buth, S. D. Matthews, and A. L. Snow. 1998. Allozymic variation in the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae). Gene Familes and Isozymes Bulletin, Sheffield Halam Univ. Press.

Gaida, I. H., D. G. Buth, S. D. Matthews, A. L. Snow, S. B. Luo, and S. Kutsuna. 2003. Allozymic variation and population structure of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae). Copeia 2003: 594-600.

Gallup, F. N. 1949. Banding recoveries of Tyto alba. Bird-Banding 20: 150.

Garey, W. F. 1962. Cardiac responses of fishes in asphyxic environments. Biological Bulletin 122: 362-368.

Garrett, C. 1974. Ocean Tides. Geoscience Canada 1: 8-14.

Gellert, G. A., S. J. Daugherty, L. Rabiee, M. Mazur, R. E. Merryman. 1994. California�s American Trader oil spill: Effective interagency and public-private collaboration in environmental disaster. J. Environmental Health 46(4): 7- .

Gibson, R. N. 1984. Hydrostatic pressure and the rhythmic behavior of intertidal marine fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 113: 479-483.

Gobalet, K. W. and T. L. Jones. 1995. Prehistoric Native American fisheries of the central California coast. Transactions American Fisheries Society 124: 813-823. 

Gooden, B. A. 1993. The evolution of asphyxia defense. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 28: 317-330.

Goodman, L. R., D. J. Hansen, G. M. Cripe, D. P. Middaugh and J. C. Moore. 1985. New early life-stage toxicity test using the California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) and results with chlorpyrifos. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10:12-21. 

Goodman, L.R., M. J. Hemmer, D. P. Middaugh, and J. C. Moore. 1992. Effects of fenvalerate on the early life stages of topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11: 409-414.

Goodson, G. 1988. "Fishes of the Pacific Coast". Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Grabowski, T. B., B. J. McAdam, and K. Logemann. 2010. Lunacy in Atlantic cod: Assessing the timing of spawning in Atlantic cod using ocean models and electronic data storage tags. ICES CM (2010): A11.

Graham, J. B. 1997. "Air-Breathing Fishes:  Evolution, Diversity, and Adaptation".  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Greenwood, P. H., R. S. Miles, and C. Patterson, eds. 1973. "Interrelationships of Fishes", Academic Press, London. 

Gregory, P. A. 2001. Grunion. Pp. 246-247 in "California�s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report". W. S. Leet, C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeill, and E. J. Larson (Eds.). California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 592 pp.   

Griem, J. N. and K. L. M. Martin. 2000. Wave action: the environmental trigger for hatching in the California grunion Leuresthes tenius (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae).  Marine Biology 137: 177-181.

Gruber, D., E. H. Ahlstrom, and M. M. Mullin. 1982. Distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Southern California Bight. Calif. Coop. Ocean. Fish. Invest. Rep. 23: 172-179.

Gunzburger, M. S. 2003. Evaluation of the hatching trigger and larval ecology of the salamander Amphiuma means. Herpetologica


Haas, J. W., Jr. 1991. Irwin A. Moon, F. Alton Everest and Will H. Houghton: Early links between the Moody Bible Institute and the American Scientific Affiliation. Perspectives on Science and the Christian Faith: 249-258.

Hastings, P. A., and L. T. Findley. 2007. Marine fishes of the upper gulf biosphere reserve, Gulf of California. Pp. 364-382 in Dry borders, great natural reserves of the Sonoran Desert, R. Felger and B. Broyles (eds.). University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Herald, E. S. 1962. "Living Fishes of the World". Doubleday, New York.

Hernandez-Alvarez, A., R. Carmona, and N. Arce. 2013. Feeding ecology of Red Knots Calidris canutus roselaari at Golfo de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico. Wader Study Group Bulletin 120: 194-201.

Hickling, C. F. and E. Rutenberg. 1936. The ovary as an indicator of the spawning period in fishes. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 1936: 311-317.

Higgins, Benjamin A. 2012. Suction among pickers: Jaw mechanics and dietary breadth in the beach spawning grunion sisters (Leuresthes) compared to their relatives (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae). MS Thesis, California State University, Fullerton.

Higgins, B. A. an M. H. Horn. 2014. Suction among pickers: Jaw mechanics, dietary breadth and feeding behavior in beach-spawning Leuresthes spp compared with their relatives. Journal of Fish Biology 84: 1689-1707.

Horn, M. H. and K. L. M. Martin. 2006. Intertidal fishes. In: L. Allen, M. Horn, and D. Pondella (Eds.), "Ecology of California Marine Fishes". University of California Press.

Horn, M. H., K. L. M. Martin, and M. A. Chotkowski, eds. 1999. "Intertidal fishes:  Life in Two Worlds", pp. 143-164. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 399 pp. 

Horn, M. H., A. K. Gawlicka, D. P. German, E. A. Logothetis, J. W. Cavanaugh, and K. S. Boyle. 2006. Structure and function of the stomachless digestive system of three related species of New World silverside fishes (Atherinopsidae) representing herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory. Marine Biology 149: 1237-1245.

Hose, J.E. and H. W. Puffer. 1984. Oxygen consumption rates of grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) embryos exposed to the petroleum hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene.  Environmental Research 35: 413-420.

Hubbs, Carl L., 1916. Notes on the marine fishes of California. Univ. Calif. Publications in Zoology 16(13): 153-169.

Hubbs, Clark. 1965. Developmental temperature tolerance and rates of four southern California fishes, Fundulus parvipinnis, Atherinops affinis, Leuresthes tenuis, and Hypsoblennius sp. Calif. Fish & Game 51(2): 113-122.

Idyll, Clarence P. 1969. Grunion, the Fish That Spawns on Land. National Geographic 135(5): 714-723.

Ishibashi, N. 1974. Feeding, starvation, and weight changes of early fish larvae. pp. 339-344 in The Early Life History of Fish, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Johnson, P. B., K. L. Martin, T. L. Vandergon, R. L. Honeycutt, R. S. Burton, and "A. Fry". 2009. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Genetic Comparisons Between Northern and Southern Populations of California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 2009: 467-476.

Jordan, D. S. 1926. The habits of the grunion. Science 63: 454.

Jordan, D. S., and Carl L. Hubbs. 1919. A monographic review of the family of Atherinidae or silversides. Leland Stanford Junior Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. (No.40):1�87, pls. I-XII.

Korringa, P. 1947. Relations between the moon and periodicity in the breeding of marine animals. Ecological Monographs 17: 349-381.

Lawrenz-Miller, S. 1991. Grunion spawning versus beach nourishment:  nursery or burial ground? Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management.  Coastal Zone �91(3): 2197-2208.

Leet, W. S., C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeill, and E. J. Larson (Eds.), 2001. "California�s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report". California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 592 pp.   

Loew, E. R., R. A. McAlary, W. N. McFarland. 1997. Ultraviolet visual sensitivity in the larvae of two species of marine atherinid fishes. Pp. 195-210 in: Zooplankton: Sensory Ecology and Physiology (P. H. Lenz, D. K. Hartline, J. Purcell, D. Macmillian, eds.). CRC Press.

Love, R. M. 1996. "Probably More than You Want to Know about the Fishes of the Pacific Coast", 2nd edition. Really Big Press, Santa Barbara. 

Love, M. S. Certainly more than you want to know about the fishes of the Pacific Coast: a postmodern experience. Really Big Press, 2011.


MacGinitie, G. E. and N. MacGinitie. 1949. "Natural History of Marine Animals". McGraw-Hill, New York. 473 pp.

MacGregor, J. S. 1976. Ovarian development and fecundity of five species of California Current fishes. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 1976: 181-188.

Martin, J. W. and H. G. Kuck. 1991. Faunal associates of an undescribed species of Chrysaora (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the southern California Bight, with notes on unusual occurrences of other warm water species in the area. Bulletin of Southern California Academy of Sciences 90: 89-101.

Martin, K. L. M. 2015. Beach Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 199 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4822-0797-2. Also available as an e-Book.

Martin, K. L. 2015. State of the Bay Report. “Biodiversity: California Grunion.” Urban Coast 5(1): 150-156. ISSN 2151-612X.

Martin, K. 2015. Science Foundation Chapter 3, Appendix 3.1 – Case Study California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis). Pp. 3.1i-iv in The Baylands and Climate Change: What We Can Do. Baylands Ecosystem Habitat Goals Science Update, California State Coastal Conservancy.

Martin, K. L. 2014. Review paper: Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 84, 577-602. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12270

Martin, K.L.M. 1999. Ready and waiting: Delayed hatching and extended incubation of anamniotic vertebrate terrestrial eggs. American Zoologist 39: 279-288.

Martin, K. L. M. 2007. Non-Tidal Rhythms. Pp. 467-468 In:  M. Denny and S. Gaines (eds.), "Encyclopedia of Tidepools".  University of California Press. 

Martin K. L., K. Bailey, C. Moravek and K. Carlson. 2011. Taking the plunge: California Grunion embryos emerge rapidly with environmentally cued hatching (ECH). Integrative and Comparative Biology 51: 26-37. doi:10.1093/icb/icr037

Martin K. L. and A. L. Carter. 2013. Brave New Propagules: Terrestrial Embryos in Anamniotic Eggs. Integrative and Comparative Biology 53: 233-247. doi:10.1093/icb/ict018.

Martin, K. L. M., K. A. Hieb, and D. A. Roberts. 2013. A southern California icon surfs north: local ecotype of California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis (Atherinopsidae) revealed by multiple approaches during temporary habitat expansion into San Francisco Bay. Copeia 2013: 729-739. Doi 10.1643/CI-13-036.

Martin K. L. M., C. L. Moravek and J. A. Flannery. 2009. Embryonic staging series for the beach spawning, terrestrially incubating California grunion Leuresthes tenuis with comparisons to other Atherinomorpha. Journal of Fish Biology 75: 17-38. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02260.x

Martin K. L. M., C. L. Moravek, A.D. Martin and R. D. Martin. 2011. Community based monitoring improves management of essential fish habitat for beach spawning California Grunion. In Bayed A. (ed.), Sandy Beaches and Coastal Zone Management – Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Sandy Beaches, Rabat, Morocco. Travaux de l’Institut Scientifique 2011(6): 65-72.

Martin K. L. M., C. L. Moravek and A. J. Walker. 2011. Waiting for a sign: Extended incubation postpones larval stage in the beach spawning California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres). Environmental Biology of Fishes 91: 63-70. doi:/10.1007/s10641-010-9760-4

Martin, K. L. M. and J. E. Podrabsky. 2017. Hit Pause: Developmental arrest in annual killifishes and their close relatives. Developmental Dynamics: DOI 10.1002/DVDY.24507.

Martin, K. L. M. and J. G. Raim. 2014. Avian predators target beach spawning marine fish, California Grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 113: 187-199.

Martin, K., T. Speer-Blank, R. Pommerening, J. Flannery, and K. Carpenter. 2006. Does beach grooming harm grunion eggs? Shore & Beach 74(1): 17-22.

Martin, K., A. Staines, M. Studer, C. Stivers, C. Moravek, P. Johnson, and J. Flannery. 2007. Grunion Greeters in California: Beach Spawning Fish, Coastal Stewardship, Beach Management and Ecotourism. Pp. 73-86 in Lück, M.; Gräupl, A.; Auyong, J.; Miller, M.L. & M.B. Orams (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Coastal & Marine Tourism Congress: Balancing Marine Tourism, Development and Sustainability. Auckland, New Zealand: New Zealand Tourism Research Institute.

Martin, K. L. M., and R. A. Strathmann. 1999. Aquatic organisms, terrestrial eggs: Early development at the water's edge. American Zoologist 39: 215-217. 

Martin, K. L. M. and D. L. Swiderski. 2001. Beach spawning in fishes: Phylogenetic tests of hypotheses. American Zoologist 41: 526-537.

Martin, K. L. M., C. R. Van Winkle, J. E. Drais, and H. Lakisic. 2004. Beach spawning fishes, terrestrial eggs, and air breathing. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77: 750-759.

Martin, K. L. and G. Wang. 2015. State of the Bay Report. “Looking Ahead: Sediment Management.” Urban Coast 5(1): 175-179. ISSN 2151-612X.

Matsumoto, J. K., and K. L. M. Martin. 2008. Lethal and sublethal effects of altered sand salinity on embryos of beach-spawning California Grunion. Copeia 2008: 483-490.

May, Robert C. 1971.  Effects of delayed initial feeding on larvae of the grunion, Leuresthes tenius (Ayers).  U.S. Fish. Bull. 69(2): 411-425.

May, R. C. 1974. Larval mortality in marine fishes and the critical period concept. Pp. 3-19 in The Early Life History of Fish. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

McCoy, E. A. 1998. Effects of No. 2 fuel on Leuresthes tenuis and comparison to P450 reporter gene system biomarker. MS Thesis, San Diego State University, 150 pp.

McConnaughey, B. H. and E. McConnaughey. 1985. "Audubon Society Nature Guide:  Pacific Coast". Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 633 pp.

McDowall, R. M. 1969. Lunar rhythms in aquatic animals: a general review. Tuatara 17: 133-144.

McDowell, R. M. and S. C. Charteris. 2006. The possible adaptive advantages of terrestrial egg deposition in some fluvial diadromous galaxiid fishes (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). Fish and Fisheries 7: 153-164.

McHugh, J.L. 1954. The influence of light on the number of vertebrae in the grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 1954(1): 23-25.

Mellinger, J. 2002. "Sexualite et Reproduction des Poissons". CNRS Editions, Paris, FR, 349 pp.

Mercieca, A., and R. C. Miller. 1969. The spawning of the grunion. Pacific Discovery 22(1): 26-27.

Middaugh, D. P. 1981. Reproductive ecology and spawning periodicity of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia (Pisces: Atherinidae). Copeia 1981: 766-776.

Middaugh, D. P. and M. J. Hemmer. 1984. Spawning of the tidewater silverside, Menidia peninsulae (Goode and Bean), in response to tidal and lighting schedules in the laboratory. Estuaries and Coasts 7: 139-148.

Middaugh, D. P. and T. Takita. 1983. Tidal and diurnal spawning cues in the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 8: 97-104.

Middaugh, D. P., P. J. Chapman, M. E. Shelton, C. L. McKenney, Jr., and L. A. Courney. 2002. Effects of fractions from biodegraded Alaska North Slope crude oil on embryonic inland silversides, Menidia beryllina. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 42: 236-243.

Middaugh, D. P., R. G. Domey, and G. I. Scott. 1984. Reproductive rhythmicity of the Atlantic silverside. Trans. American Fisheries Society 113: 472-478.

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Last updated August 2017